What is Hybrid Car?
In automotive technology, hybrid car refers to a vehicle with two types of powertrain. Usually, this is an internal combustion engine and an electric engine.
In lightweight hybrid cars, the electric engine is used only as an auxiliary to the internal combustion engine (ICE). But in a full-fledged hybrid car, the internal combustion engine is more efficiently paired with an electric engine. Moreover, the electric engine is used quite powerful, capable of independently driving the car at low speeds.
For modern automakers, a hybrid car means more than simply integrating an engine motor into a powertrain. This is “intelligent” control of energy flows in the car. The effective combination of internal combustion engines with electric engines reduces fuel consumption, exhaust toxicity, improves dynamics and driving comfort. A good example of this is the luxurious BMW 7 ActiveHybrid. Today auto makers are developing five main varieties of hybrid vehicles.
Serial. In such a hybrid system, the internal combustion engine operates in the most economical mode, solely in order to charge the battery of the electric motor. The car itself is driven by an electric engine.
Parallel. In such a hybrid, the internal combustion engine and the electric engine operate independently of each other, and, depending on the type (soft or full hybrid), they can drive the car simultaneously or in turn.
Soft. Here, the traditional starter and alternator are completely replaced by an electric engine, which is used to start and support the engine. This helps to increase vehicle dynamics and reduce fuel consumption by about 15%. The electric engine and batteries are not designed to propel the vehicle by themselves. But this makes it possible to significantly lighten them and reduce the cost, in comparison with the components of a full hybrid. The BMW 7 ActiveHybrid uses the mild hybrid concept.
Full. In fully hybrid systems, the car can be propelled by an electric engine at any stage of the movement, whether accelerating or moving at a constant speed. For example, in a “city cycle”, a car can use only one electric engine. The system components of such a concept are noticeably larger, more massive, and much more difficult to install than in the case of a “soft” hybrid. However, they can significantly improve vehicle dynamics. In addition, using only electricity when driving in the city can reduce fuel consumption by 20%. The full hybrid is the BMW X6 ActiveHybrid.
Rechargeable. The capacity, size and weight of the battery depends on its purpose. In recent years, new developments in this area have greatly expanded the applicability of batteries in automobiles. High capacity and durability make Li-Ion and Ni-MH power supplies fully suitable for use in hybrid cars.
Hybrid car insurance
The purchased car is registered with the police, which, together with the numberplates, costs from $60 to 130 for 2 years, depending on the engine size. In addition, there must be an inspection mark on the windshield. A similar check can be done at any auto repair shop. In its course, the level of exhaust gases is monitored, the brakes are checked, the light is checked. The fee for everything is about $35. Of course, if there are no significant breakdowns.
Insurance is a serious expense item, it is imposed by the law to have it. A law violation is mercilessly fined. In a family with three cars, annual insurance costs from $ 2,000 a year, and in the suburbs the price is much lower than within the boundaries of major cities such as New York. In the Brooklyn area, for example, the minimum car insurance that covers only the cost of repair in the event of an accident costs $ 1,600 a year.
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